Mesopotamia was the land between the two rivers, Tigris & Euphrates, which originated in Turkey, flowed from north to south through Iraq and Kuwait, and emptied into the Persian Gulf.
Mesopotamia’s importance began when agricultural communities emerged, around 4000-3000 BC, as a result of the annual flooding of the river. Communities could trade their excess agricultural products for valued commodities. With food in reserve and imported building materials, Mesopotamia’s complex urbanization developed early. The area was inhabited by the Sumerians (3200-2390 BC) who had stable city-states with kings, government, religion, cuneiform writing and large scale buildings called ziggurats. Later, the Assyrians (911-612 BC) rose to power under king Ashurnasirpal II (884-859 BC).